*1964, 일본 올림픽 그리고 요요기 운동장 [ Kenzo Tange ] Yoyogi National Gymnasium

1964년 일본 하계 올림픽, 이제는 아이콘이 된 요요기 국립 운동장입니다.
많은 분들이 알고 계시겠지만(사실 고백하면 저 오늘 처음 봤습니다 꾸벅) 반세기가
흐른 지금보아도 절제된 곡선의 아름다운 흐름은 놀랐습니다.
에라 사라렌의 하키경기장에서 영감을 얻어 텐션구조의 시스템을 적용하여
일본의 전통건축을 현대적(50년전 이야기)으로 해석하여 재현하였다
하네요. 우리나라 전주시청 같은 건물은 무엇일까요?
전주역의 지붕 및 콘크리트 다포는 무엇일까요?
조금 부끄럽습니다.
다른 이야기이지만 며칠전에 지인과 제가 포스팅한 프랑스의 항구에 만든 오렌지 건물에
대해 이야기 하다가 색이야기 나와서 우리나라 택시의 색인
꽃담황토색이야기를 했었습니다.
분명 뉴욕의 'YELLOW CAB' 을 벤치마킹해서 만들었겠죠.
그래서 비슷한 원색계열의 색을 찾다가 기왕이면
우리 고유의 색을 사용해 보자 해서 찾은 색이 겠죠.
물론 색은 주관적입니다. 제가 아닌 색이 다른 이의 눈에는
좋은 색으로 비칠 수도 있는 거니까요. 하지만 저는 아닌 것 같습니다.
눈에 띠는 노란색,주황색을 쓰고 싶어하는 것 알겠는데
굳이 비슷한 색을 찾다보니 그 색을 사용한 것 같은데
채도가 낮아 정말 막막하고 흐리멍멍합니다.
이처럼 무조건 우리것을 갖다 붙인다고 좋은 것은 아니라 생각됩니다.
예전 그리스에서 신전을 복원하는데 그중 열주 하나가 세련된 형식의 기둥이였습니다.
그래서 제가 알아보니 복원이라는 것이 무조건적으로 그당시의 것을 모방하는 것은
진정한 복원의 의미가 아닌 것이고 지금의 것이라도 원래의 취지에 맞게
만든다면 그것이 진정한 복원이라고 들었습니다.
좋습니다. 우리것을 지키고 보존하고 계승발전하는 일,
하지만 무분별한 모방은 진정한 계승, 리노베이션이 아닌, 재해석이 아닌
듣도보지도 못한(듣보잡) 다른 성질의 것을 만들어 냅니다.
차라리 새로운 것을 만들었으면 합니다. 제발...
가깝고도 먼 나라 일본의 현실과 우리의 현실이 조금은
멀게만 느껴집니다.

Built for the 1964 Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo, Japan, the Yoyogi National Gymnasium has become an architectural icon for its distinctive design.  Designed by one of Japan’s most famous modernist architects, Kenzo Tange, the gymnasium is a hybridization of western modernist aesthetics and traditional Japanese architecture.

Tange’s innovative structural design creates dramatic sweeping curves that appear to effortlessly drape from two large, central supporting cables. It’s dynamically suspended roof and rough materials form one of the most iconic building profiles in the world.


Sitting within one of the largest parks in the metropolitan region of Tokyo, Tange uses the context as a way in which to integrate his building into the landscape.  The subtle curves of the structural cables, the sweeping roof plane, and the curving concrete base seem to emerge from the site appearing  as one integrated entity.

The gymnasium is the larger of two arenas for the 1964 Summer Olympic Games both of which are designed by Tange and employ similar structural principles and aesthetics.  The smaller pavilion which holds approximately 5,300 people is used for various small Olympic events, whereas the national gymnasium was designed to be occupied by 10,500 people primarily for the Olympic swimming and diving competitions.  However, it was able to be transformed into a space to accommodate for larger events such as basketball and ice hockey.

Influenced by Le Corbusier’s Philip’s Pavilion and Eero Saarinen’s hockey stadium at Yale University, Tange became intrigued with structure and its tensile and geometric potential.  Similar to Saarinen’s design for Yale’s hockey stadium, Tange employs a central structural spine from where the structure and roof originates.  Two large steel cables [13” in diameter] are supported between two structural towers in addition to being anchored into concrete supports on the ground.  The suspended cables form a tensile tent-like roofing structure; a series of pre-stressed cables are suspended off of the two main cables that drape toward the concrete structure that creates the base of the gymnasium as well as providing the necessary structure for the seating within the stadium.

The result is a symmetrical suspension structure that elegantly draping from the central structural spine.  It‘s flowing surfaces make the minimal surface structure appear as a fabric suspended by two simple supports that’s being pulled into tension by the landscape.  The fusion of Japanese architectural aesthetic and western modernist design, the gymnasium’s structural system resembles a snails shell, but in a more contextual sense, the gymnasiums low profile and sweeping roof forms some semblance to that of an abstracted Japanese pagoda.

When the Yoyogi National Gymnasium was completed it was the largest suspended roof span in the world.  It’s dynamic form and structural expressionism has made the gymnasium one of Kenzo Tange’s most important works, as well as a progressive architectural icon.  Today, it is one of Tokyo’s most sought after tourist destinations, while continuing to be an international venue for sports and fashion.

“We Japanese architects, in our endeavours to resolve the problems facing modern Japan, have devoted a great deal of attention to the Japanese tradition, and have, in the end, arrived at the point which I have sought to elucidate for you. If, however, there can be detected a trace of tradition in my works or in those of my generation, then our creative powers have not been at their best, then we are still in the throes of evolving our creativity. I want, by all means, my buildings to be free of the label ‘traditional.’ –Kenzo Tange

Architect: Kenzo Tange
Location: Tokyo, Japan
Project Year: 1961-1964
Photographs: Greatbuildings, Flickr User:kanegen, Flickr User: Jamie Barras, Wikimedia Commons, Wikiarquitectura
References: Greatbuildings, Wikiarquitectura

from  archdaily

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